Supervisor has an important role in practice teaching as:
i) A resource person
ii) An adviser
iii) A general moral booster
iv) An interpreter of feedback
v) An assessor
Supervisor’s duty is not only to evaluate the lessons of teaching practice, but by using his / her all the abilities to make this experience (All the stages of teaching practice) result oriented. He / she should has all the planning before hand. He / she should have meeting and conversion with teacher educators, experienced teachers of the institution, educationists, concerned school head teachers and other teachers.
Introductory lectures should be arranged before the departure of student teachers to the practicing schools in order to aware the student teachers about the preparation of lesson plans and other assigned activities. During teaching practice it is the duty of supervisors to supervise their lessons, other assigned activities, guidance and counseling as well as provide the student teachers with feed back and to enable them so that they can criticize and reform themselves. During the teaching practice student teachers should not be criticized in front of the practicing school staff and students. If there is a need then all the student teachers should be gathered and should be scolded and warned without nominating and asking the name. Supervisors’ role is to prepare teachers for future, therefore he / she should act as a facilitator.
Teaching Practice in Pakistan
Different teacher training programmes are being offered in Pakistan. In all the programmes teaching practice is compulsory component except M.Ed (Master of Education). In true spirit we can produce good teachers through this activity, but the procedure adopted in Pakistan is just to pass / kill the time. Teaching practice duration is very short, it is about 4 to 8 weeks or teaching of 60 to 75 lessons. During teaching practice student teachers are bound to the classrooms for teaching. They are not trained for the other activities performed in schools. Therefore, effective learning could not take place. Student teachers are bound to use easy principles and methods of teaching. They are just being taught how to start the lesson, how to control the class, how to keep an eye over the students while writing on the black / white board.
Teaching practice is doing nothing to teaching other than adhoc basis. The schools where teaching practice is conducted are doing nothing but only bearing it and not taking active part in the preparation of teachers of future. The administration and teachers of practicing schools are not aware with the information and evaluation techniques, which are used during teaching practice. They are not fully aware about the importance of teaching practice for student teachers and future generations.
It is a fact that student teachers are not perfect teachers, practicing schoolteachers can’t give them full authorities but they can trust on them. Practically two ways are being seen here in Pakistan. Firstly these uninvited guests are consider inferiors teachers and criticized without any justification. Secondly some teachers transfer their all burden to them.
In some teacher training institutions selection of lessons is kept up to the choice of student teachers and they select such lessons which are very easy and in which minimum audio visual aids are used.
Suggestions to Improve Teaching Practice in Pakistan
Here are some suggestions to improve the teaching practice in Pakistan.
a) In teacher training institutions teaching methods were not only teach but also practically demonstrated by the teacher educators.
b) The duration of teaching practice should be increased up to 12 weeks at least, so that practical training should be given for a quarter of the year.
c) Teaching practice should not be consisted of classroom teaching only. Other aspects like attendance of students, collection of fee, calculation of fee, preparation of registers, conduct of morning assembly, conduct of co-curricular activities, preparation of question papers, marking of answer scripts, compilation of results, solution of students’ problems and meetings with students’ parents should be included.
d) Microteaching should be adopted in teacher training institutions and model lessons should be given before student teachers by experts as well as by video films.
e) Student teachers are not given marks only for model lessons and all the aspects of teaching practice should be included in evaluation.
f) In order to make the evaluation of teaching practice more effective, appropriateness of lesson, teaching methods, teaching aids, practical organization of lesson, interest of students and teachers and students’ answers should be included in evaluation.
g) It should be encouraged that student teachers make audio visual aids by them selves and student teachers should be given / provided guidance after every lesson.
h) In order to make teaching practice more effective, it is also proposed that student teachers should watch the lessons of experienced teachers for one week and write evaluation report about them and supervisors should provide guidelines to student teachers in the light of this evaluation report.
i) It should be ensured that student teachers keep the sequence of lessons in such a way, so that they can teach all types of lessons and use different teaching methods.
j) Prior to teaching practice student teachers should practice in their fellows in order to build more confidence in them.
k) During teaching practice student teachers should be given projects, which cover all the aspects of teaching practice i.e. (preparation of teaching kit, planning for decoration of classrooms, betterment of environment and provision of facilities).
l) During practice teaching prospective teachers should be made habitual of preparing daily lesson plan.
m) Practice teaching should be more realistic and suited to the actual class room situations.
Teaching practice is an activity, which can play an important role in the preparation of teachers. Its effectiveness is necessary for the nation. It is a milestone for professional adolescence. It is a combination of personality, professional skills, knowledge and training, which is fuel for an endless journey. Now it is the duty / responsibility of teacher educators and teachers of practicing schools to make this fuel / expenditure endless.